OBJECTIVE : This study was performed to determine the effect of oral care using chlorhexidine, vitamin E and honey on oral mucositis (OM) management in children treated in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS : The study was a randomized controlled trial with a parallel design. The study sample was composed of 150 children who were treated in the PICU of a university hospital in Turkey. Children enrolled in the study were randomly divided into six groups based on the oral care solutions used (n = 25 in each group). The Demographic Information Form and the World Health Organization Oral Mucositis Index were used for data collection. RESULTS : The mucositis indices of the children presenting with and without OM upon admission to the PICU were compared on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 and the study found that the mucositis index values of the children treated with vitamin E were significantly lower than in the other groups (p < 0.05 for each), while those of the children given chlorhexidine were significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.05 for each). CONCLUSIONS : At the end of the study, vitamin E was determined to be the most effective agent in OM management, followed by honey as the second most effective agent. Chlorhexidine was found to be less effective in OM management compared to the other two agents. Based on this, vitamin E is recommended for use in oral mucositis-preventive and therapeutic oral care practices. CONCLUSIONS : The results of the present study conducted with PICU patients will be useful in the administration of oral care. These findings are also important for nurses who have the responsibility of oral mucositis management.