UNASSIGNED : Busulfan (BU) has a destructive effect on the male reproductive system. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) as a source of antioxidants and phenolic compounds, on BU-induced damages in rat testes. UNASSIGNED : In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. The control group (CTL) received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), followed by oral administration of distilled water for 5 weeks. In BU group, BU (10 mg/kg) was administrated i.p. once. In cotreatment groups, first, received BU (10 mg/kg, a single i.p. injection) then, OLE was administrated orally at different doses of 250 mg/kg (BU+OLE 250), 500 mg/kg (BU+OLE 500) and 750 mg/kg (BU+OLE 750), for 5 weeks. Next, blood and sperm samples were collected. The left testis was removed to investigate testicular parameters and apoptosis by using H and E and TUNEL staining, respectively. All data were analyzed by SPSS software and a P<0.05 was considered significant. UNASSIGNED : There was a significant decline in sperm viability (P=0.017), number of primary spermatocyte (PS) (P=0.001) and Leydig cells (P=0.023) in the BU group versus the CTL group. OLE at three doses could repair these defects versus BU group. Increases in apoptotic spermatogonia cells (SG) due to BU were significantly reduced by OLE 250 and 500 mg/kg (P<0.01). A reduction in germinal epithelium height and an increase in apoptotic SG were observed in BU+OLE 750 group vs. other groups (P<0.01) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was at the highest level, also Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased markedly vs. CTL (P=0.024). UNASSIGNED : Oral administration of OLE at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg could be helpful in ameliorating BUinduced toxicity in rat testes, while OLE 750 mg/kg not only did not cause positive effects, but also could exacerbate the harmful effects.