Conservative practices, such as manual registry have limited scope regarding preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative decision making, knowledge discovery, analytical techniques and knowledge integration into patient care. To maximize quality and value, perioperative care is changing through new technological developments. In this context, knowledge management practices will enable future transformation and enhancements in healthcare services. By performing a data science and knowledge management research in the perioperative department at Hospital Dr. Nélio Mendonça between 2013 and 2015, this paper describes its principal results. This study showed perioperative decision-making improvement by integrating data science tools on the perioperative electronic system (PES). Before the PES implementation only 1,2% of the nurses registered the preoperative visit and after 87,6% registered it. Regarding the patient features it was possible to assess anxiety and pain levels. A future conceptual model for perioperative decision support systems grounded on data science should be considered as a knowledge management tool.