The objectives of this study were to assess the associations among various physical and mental chronic conditions and napping. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was proposed within the NutriNet-Santé population-based e-cohort launched in France in 2009. Participants were 43,060 French volunteers aged 18 y and over with Internet access. A self-report questionnaire assessing sleep characteristics was administered in 2014. The main outcome (dependent) variable was weekday or weekend napping (yes/no). The main exposure (independent) variables were overweight/obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anxiety and depressive disorders, incident major cardiovascular diseases (myocardial infarction, stroke, unstable angina), and incident cancer (breast and prostate). The associations of interest were investigated with multivariable logistic regression analysis. No significant associations were found between major cardiovascular diseases or breast or prostate cancer and napping. Instead, we found that napping was more common among males (46.1%) than among females 36.9% (p < 0.0001). Individuals who were overweight or obese or had hypertension, diabetes, depression or anxiety disorders had an increased likelihood of napping compared with their healthy peers. The adjusted ORs ranged from 1.14 to 1.28″. In conclusion, most chronic conditions were independently associated with napping. Future longitudinal analyses are needed to elucidate causality.