The effect of different occlusal contact situations on peri-implant bone stress - A contact finite element analysis of indirect axial loading.

Affiliation

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomedical Materials Science, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Implant restoration is one of the basic treatments in dentistry today, yet implant loss from occlusal overload is still a problem. Complex biomechanical problems such as occlusal overload are often analyzed by means of the finite element method. This numerical method makes it possible to analyze in detail the influence that different loading situations have upon implants and tissues, which is a key element in optimizing these dental procedures. This study was designed to investigate the stress distribution in peri-implant bone of a single-tooth implant crown using the finite element method. The load was applied indirectly via an occluding tooth through a three and five contact setup into the implant crown. The friction coefficient values between the crown and antagonist were varied between 0.1 and 1.0. Additionally, three crowns with cusp inclinations of 20°, 30° and 40° were modeled. Non-linear contact computations indicated that an increase in friction changed the direction and magnitude of contact forces, which also led to reduced stresses in the bone. Furthermore, the stress magnitudes were higher when cusps of a greater inclination were used. The intensity of stress alterations was strongly dependent on the distribution and number of contacts, and the contact force vector. In maximum intercuspation, a resulting axial load due to well-distributed contacts prevented high stresses in bone even with high cusp inclinations and low friction. Therefore for long-term clinical success, particular attention should be paid to occlusal adjustment so as to prevent oblique loading onto dental implant restorations.

Keywords

Biomedical engineering,Bite force,Dental implants,Dental occlusion,Dental stress analysis,Finite element analysis,

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