The effects of manganese overexposure on brain health.


Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA. Electronic address: [Email]


Manganese (Mn) is the twelfth most abundant element on the earth and an essential metal to human health. Mn is present at low concentrations in a variety of dietary sources, which provides adequate Mn content to sustain support various physiological processes in the human body. However, with the rise of Mn utility in a variety of industries, there is an increased risk of overexposure to this transition metal, which can have neurotoxic consequences. This risk includes occupational exposure of Mn to workers as well as overall increased Mn pollution affecting the general public. Here, we review exposure due to air pollution and inhalation in industrial settings; we also delve into the toxic effects of manganese on the brain such as oxidative stress, inflammatory response and transporter dysregulation. Additionally, we summarize current understandings underlying the mechanisms of Mn toxicity.


Air pollution,Brain health,Manganese,Metal imbalance,Nervous system,Neurodegeneration,Neurotoxicity,Oxidative stress,

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