The oil of garlic, Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae), as a potential protectant against Anisakis spp. Type II (L3) (Nematoda) infection in Wistar rats.

Affiliation

Morsy K(1)(2), Ghamdi AA(3), Dajem SB(1), Bin-Meferij M(4), Alshehri A(1), El-Kott A(1)(5), Ibrahim E(1)(6), Ali A(2), Hamdi H(2)(7), Al-Doaiss A(1)(8), Saber S(9).
Author information:
(1)Biology Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
(2)Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
(3)Biology Department, College of Science, Al Baha University, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia.
(4)Biology Department, College of Science, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
(5)Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt.
(6)Blood Products Quality Control and Research Department, National Organization for Research and Control of Biologicals, Cairo, Egypt.
(7)Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.
(8)Anatomy and Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Republic of Yemen.
(9)Histopathology Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research - NODCAR, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract

The consumption of inadequately thermally treated fish is a public health risk due to the possible propagation of Anisakis larvae. The present study demonstrated the physiological and histopathological changes that accompanied an oral inoculation of crude extracts from fresh and thermally treated Anisakis Type II (L3) in rats. Worms were isolated from a marine fish and examined and identified using light and scanning electron microscopy. The study was performed in 6 rat groups: control (I), garlic oil (GO) inoculated (II), fresh L3 inoculated (III), thermally treated L3 inoculated (IV), fresh L3 + GO inoculated (V), and a thermally treated L3 + GO inoculated (VI) groups. Rats inoculated with fresh and thermally treated L3 showed abnormal liver and kidney functions associated with the destruction of normal architecture. GO produced a protective effect in rat groups inoculated with L3 extracts + GO via the amelioration of liver and kidney functions, which was confirmed by the marked normal structure on histology. Cooking of L3-infected fish induced severe alterations compared to uncooked fish. The administration of garlic before and after fish eating is recommended to avoid the dangerous effect of anisakids, even if they are cooked.