Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a reversible post-translational modification regulating various biological pathways including DNA damage repair (DDR). Rapid turnover of PARylation is critically important for an optimal DNA damage response and maintaining genomic stability. Recent studies show that PARylation is tightly regulated by a group of enzymes that can erase the ADP-ribose (ADPR) groups from target proteins. The aim of this review is to present a comprehensive understanding of dePARylation enzymes, their substrates and roles in DDR. Special attention will be laid on the role of these proteins in the development of cancer and their feasibility in anticancer therapeutics.