PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of tibial component coverage (over-hang and under-hang) and the alignment of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) components 1 week after surgery. We select patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) (the Knee Society score (KSS score) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index-pain score (WOMAC pain score)) and tibial bone resorption (TBR) 2 years after surgery as the end points. METHODS: The study retrospectively analyzed 109 patients undergoing TKA (fixed-bearing prosthesis with asymmetrical tibial tray) from January 2014 to December 2017 in Huashan Hospital. By using standard long-leg X-rays, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral X-rays of the knee, tibial component coverage (under-hang or over-hang), AP tibial-femoral anatomical angle (AP-TFA), AP femoral angle (AP-FA), AP tibial angle (AP-TA), and lateral tibial angle (L-TA) were measured at 1 week after surgery, while TBR was measured through postoperative 1-week and 2-year AP and lateral radiographs of the knee on three sides (medial side, lateral side on AP radiograph, and anterior side on lateral radiograph). The Pearson correlation analysis, simple linear regression, multiple linear regression, the Student's t test, and one-way ANOVA together with Tukey's post hoc test (or Games-Howell post hoc test) were used in the analyses. RESULTS: Tibial under-hang was more likely to appear in our patients following TKA (42%, medially, 39%, laterally, and 25%, anteriorly). In multivariate linear regression analysis of TBR, tibial under-hang (negative value) 1 week after surgery was positively correlated with TBR 2 years later on the medial (p = 0.003) and lateral (p = 0.026) side. Tibial over-hang (positive value) 1 week after surgery on the medial side was found negatively related with KSS score (p = 0.004) and positively related with WOMAC pain score (p = 0.036) 2 years later in multivariate linear regression analysis of PROMS. Both scores were better in the anatomically sized group than in the mild over-hang group (or severe over-hang) (p < 0.001). However, no significant relationship was found between the alignment of TKA components at 1 week after surgery and the end points (TBR and PROMS) 2 years later. CONCLUSION: Under-hang of the tibial component on both the medial and lateral sides can increase the risk of TBR 2 years later. Over-hang of tibial component on the medial side decreases the PROMS (KSS score and WOMAC pain score) 2 years later. An appropriate size of tibial component during TKA is extremely important for patient's prognosis, while the alignment of components might not be as important.
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