Tissue sodium content in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Affiliation

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND : Tissue sodium content by 23Na magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been found to be increased in arterial hypertension. We analyzed whether tissue sodium content is increased in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM).
METHODS : Patients with T2DM were compared to those with primary hypertension. Patients with T2DM were off any antidiabetic and hypertensive patients off any antihypertensive therapy for at least 4 weeks. Skin and muscle sodium content was assessed non-invasively with a 3.0 T clinical MRI system (Magnetom Verio, Siemens Health Care, Erlangen, Germany) in each patient.
RESULTS : In patients with T2DM (N = 59) we observed significantly greater muscle sodium content (diabetes: 20.6 ± 3.5 vs hypertension: 16.3 ± 2.5 mmol/l, p < 0.001) and skin sodium content (diabetes: 24.5 ± 7.2 vs hypertension: 20.6 ± 5.7 mmol/l, p = 0.01) than in those with primary hypertension (N = 33). When potential confounders (age, body mass index, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate) were entered in a covariance analysis, both skin sodium content (p = 0.037) and muscle sodium content (p < 0.001) were still clearly elevated.
CONCLUSIONS : Patients with T2DM have greater skin and muscle sodium content. These are the first known data to demonstrate increased tissue sodium content in patients with T2DM, measured by 23Na magnetic resonance imaging. Since tissue sodium content is related to organ damage, therapeutic intervention should aim at reducing tissue sodium content.

Keywords

(23)Na-MRI,Salt,Sodium retention,T2DM,Tissue sodium content,