Towards improved hepatocyte cultures: Progress and limitations.


Department of Traumatology, Siegfried Weller Institute, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address: [Email]


Hepatotoxicity is among the most frequent reasons for drug withdrawal from the market. Therefore, there is an urgent need for reliable predictive in vitro tests, which unfailingly identify hepatotoxic drug candidates, reduce drug development time, expenses and the number of test animals. Currently, human hepatocytes represent the gold standard. However, the use of hepatocytes is challenging since the cells are not constantly available and lose their metabolic activity in culture. To solve these problems many different approaches have been developed in the past decades. The aim of this review is to present these approaches and to discuss the possibilities and limitations as well as future opportunities and directions.


3D culture,3D micro-tissues,Co-culture,In vitro toxicity testing,Organ-on-a-chip,Primary human hepatocytes,

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