Toxicity of engineered micro- and nanomaterials with antifouling properties to the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryonic stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.


School of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, 66978, Israel. Electronic address: [Email]


Antifouling booster biocides are chemicals used in protective paints to tackle the adhesion of fouling organisms to maritime artificial structures. However, they are also known to exert toxic effects on non-target organisms. Recent research developments have highlighted the potential use of engineered micro/nanomaterials (EMNMs) as carriers of antifouling booster biocides in order to control their release and to reduce the harmful effects on living biota. In the present study, we sought to assess the toxicity of two commercially-available booster biocides: (zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and copper pyrithione (CuPT)); three unloaded engineered micro/nanomaterials (EMNMs); layered double hydroxides (LDH), silica nanocapsules (SiNC), polyurea microcapsules (PU); , and six novel EMNMs (loaded with each of the two biocides). The exposure tests were conducted on the larval stage (nauplii) of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and on two embryonic developmental stages of the European purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The findings indicate that the unloaded LDH and PU (i.e. both biocide-free EMNMs) have non/low toxic effects on both species. The unloaded SiNC, in contrast, exerted a mild toxic effect on the A. salina nauplii and P. lividus embryos. The free biocides presented different toxicity values, with ZnPT being more toxic than CuPT in the P. lividus assays. LDH-based pyrithiones demonstrated lower toxicity compared to the free forms of the state-of-the-art compounds, and constitute good candidates in terms of their antifouling efficacy.


Engineered micro/nanomaterials (EMNMs),Fouling,Layered double hydroxides (LDH),Polyurea microcapsules (PU),Pyrithione,Silica mesoporous nanocapsules (SiNC),