Transformation of Selected Trichothecenes during the Wheat Malting Production.

Affiliation

Bryła M(1), Ksieniewicz-Woźniak E(1), Michałowska D(2), Waśkiewicz A(3), Yoshinari T(4), Gwiazdowski R(5).
Author information:
(1)Department of Food Safety and Chemical Analysis, Prof. Waclaw Dabrowski Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, 02-532 Warsaw, Poland.
(2)Beer and Malt Laboratory, Prof. Waclaw Dabrowski Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, 02-532 Warsaw, Poland.
(3)Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Forestry and Wood, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 60-625 Poznan, Poland.
(4)Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 210-9501, Japan.
(5)Research Centre for Registration of Agrochemicals, Institute of Plant Protection-National Research Institute, 60-318 Poznań, Poland.

Abstract

The transformation of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and their glucosides (DON3G and NIV3G) during the malting of grains of two wheat varieties was studied. The concentration of DON3G and NIV3G started to increase significantly before the concentration of DON and NIV increased. This may reflect the transformation of the parent mycotoxin forms into their glucosides due to xenobiotic detoxification reactions. After a sharp rise during the last 2 days of the process (day 6 and 7), the DON concentration reached 3010 ± 338 µg/kg in the Legenda wheat-based malt and 4678 ± 963 µg/kg in the Pokusa wheat-based malt. The NIV concentration, at 691 ± 65 µg/kg, remained the same as that in the dry grain. The concentration of DON3G in the Legenda and Pokusa wheat-based malt was five and three times higher, respectively, than that in the steeped grain. The concentration of NIV3G in the Legenda wheat-based malt was more than twice as high as that in the steeped grain. The sharp increase in the concentration of DON at the end of the malting process reflected the high pathogen activity. We set aside some samples to study a batch that was left undisturbed without turning and aeration, for the entire period of malting. The concentration of DON in the malt produced from the latter batch was 135% and 337% higher, for Legenda and Pokusa, respectively, than that in the malt produced from the batch that was turned and aerated. The NIV concentration was 22% higher in the latter batch.