Triple-threat activity of PEDF in bone tumors: Tumor inhibition, tissue preservation and cardioprotection against doxorubicin.


School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Science, Curtin University, Bentley, Perth, WA 6102, Australia; Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Bentley, Perth, WA 6102, Australia; College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, St Albans, Melbourne, VIC 3021, Australia. Electronic address: [Email]


Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is known for its osteogenic properties, but its effects against primary and secondary bone tumors have not comprehensively been demonstrated. We show the ubiquitous expression of PEDF in murine embryonic tissue. Continuous administration of PEDF in pregnant mice for five days did not adversely affect foetal health, despite PEDF's known potent antiangiogenic properties. In the case of the devastating childhood bone cancer osteosarcoma, PEDF has direct anticancer activity per se, and protects against the toxicity of doxorubicin in the heart, small intestine and testes. PEDF demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects against human prostate and breast cancer cells, tumors which are known to metastasize to bone as the preferred secondary site. Caspase-2 was activated in both tumor cell types by PEDF. In models of prostate and breast cancer in bone, PEDF significantly reduced tumor volumes. When combined with zoledronic acid, continuously-administered PEDF significantly reduced breast tumor volume at the bone, and was able to preserve the quality of bone better than the combination therapy. These multiple positive findings make PEDF an ideal endogenous and safe biological for possible future clinical testing.