Trophic Rewilding Advancement in Anthropogenically Impacted Landscapes (TRAAIL): A framework to link conventional conservation management and rewilding.


Pil Birkefeldt Møller Pedersen


Section for Ecoinformatics & Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 116, 8000, Århus C, Denmark. [Email]


A variety of rewilding initiatives are being implemented across Europe, generally characterized by a more functionalist approach to nature management compared to the classic compositional approach. To address the increasing need for a framework to support implementation of rewilding in practical management, we present TRAAIL-Trophic Rewilding Advancement in Anthropogenically Impacted Landscapes. TRAAIL has been co-produced with managers and other stakeholders and provides managers with a framework to categorize rewilding initiatives and to link conventional nature management and rewilding by guiding steps towards a higher degree of self-regulation. Applying TRAAIL to data obtained in a Danish survey of rewilding-inspired initiatives we find that out of 44 initiatives there is no "Full rewilding" initiatives, 3 "Near-full rewilding" initiatives, 23 "Partial rewilding" initiatives, 2 "minimal rewilding" initiatives and 16 "Effort-intensive conservation management" initiatives. This study shows how TRAAIL can guide and inform trophic rewilding on a local and national scale.


Categorization,Conservation management,Ecological restoration,Large herbivores,Protected areas,Trophic rewilding,