Twenty-four-hour urine osmolality as a representative index of adequate hydration and a predictor of recurrence in patients with urolithiasis.


Department of Urology, College of Medicine and Institute for Tumor Research, Chungbuk National University, 776 1sunhwan-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheonju, 28644, Korea. [Email]


OBJECTIVE : To determine the value of 24-h urine osmolality (UOsm) as a representative index of adequate hydration and predictor of stone recurrence in patients with urolithiasis.
METHODS : Medical records of consecutive patients presenting with renal or ureteric stones between 1994 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped according to the results of 24-h UOsm (low ≤ 564 mOsm/kg H2O, high > 564 mOsm/kg H2O). Metabolic parameters and risk of stone recurrence were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS : The low urine concentration group were more likely to be older, to be female, and to have a lower body mass index and higher glomerular filtration rate than the high concentration group (each P < 0.005). A positive correlation was seen between 24-h UOsm and urinary calcium, sodium, uric acid, and magnesium excretion and 24-h specific gravity; a negative correlation was seen with 24-h urine volume. Stone-forming constituents, such as calcium and uric acid, were significantly higher in the high urine concentration group. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that the low urine concentration group had a significantly longer stone recurrence-free period than the high urine concentration group (log-rank test, P < 0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, 24-h UOsm was seen to be an independent risk factor for stone recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS : UOsm is a promising approach to assessing hydration and predicting stone recurrence in patients with urolithiasis. Maintaining UOsm < 564 mOsm/kg H2O may reduce the risk of stone recurrence.


Osmolar concentration,Recurrence,Urinary calculi,