Ultrasound as a Rapid and Low-Cost Extraction Procedure to Obtain Anthocyanin-Based Colorants from Prunus spinosa L. Fruit Epicarp: Comparative Study with Conventional Heat-Based Extraction.


Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal. [Email]


An ultrasound rapid and low-cost procedure for anthocyanin-based colorants from Prunus spinosa L. fruit epicarp was developed, and the advantages were compared with conventional heat-based extraction. To obtain the conditions that maximize anthocyanins' extraction, a response surface methodology was applied using the variables of time, temperature, and ethanol content, in the case of heat extraction, whereas for ultrasound assisted extraction, temperature was replaced by ultrasound power. Two anthocyanin compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS-namely, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside. The responses used were the extraction yield and the content of the identified anthocyanins. Ultrasound extraction was the most effective method at 5.00 ± 0.15 min, 400.00 ± 32.00 W, and 47.98% ± 2.88% of ethanol obtaining 68.60% ± 2.06% of extracted residue, with an anthocyanin content of 18.17 mg/g (extract-basis) and 11.76 mg/g (epicarp-basis). Overall, a viable green process was achieved that could be used to support pilot-scale studies for industrial production of anthocyanin-based colorants from P. spinosa fruit epicarp.


Prunus spinosa L. fruit epicarp,cyanidin 3-rutinoside,heat and ultrasound assisted extraction,peonidin 3-rutinoside,response surface methodology,wild fruit valorization,

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