Untargeted and Targeted Metabolomics and Tryptophan Decarboxylase In Vivo Characterization Provide Novel Insight on the Development of Kiwifruits (Actinidia deliciosa).


Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona, Italy. [Email]


Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) is a commercially important crop with highly nutritional green fleshy fruits. The post-harvest maturation of the fruits is well characterized, but little is known about the metabolic changes that occur during fruit development. Here we used untargeted metabolomics to characterize the non-volatile metabolite profile of kiwifruits collected at different time points after anthesis, revealing profound metabolic changes before the onset of ripening including the depletion of many classes of phenolic compounds. In contrast, the phytohormone abscisic acid accumulated during development and ripening, along with two indolamines (serotonin and its precursor tryptamine), and these were monitored in greater detail by targeted metabolomics. The role of indolamines in kiwifruit development is completely unknown, so we also characterized the identity of genes encoding tryptophan decarboxylase in A. deliciosa and its close relative A. chinensis to provide insight into the corresponding biological processes. Our results indicate that abscisic acid and indolamines fulfill unrecognized functions in the development and ripening of kiwifruits.


Actinidia deliciosa,abscisic acid,serotonin,tryptamine,tryptophan decarboxylase,untargeted metabolomics,

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