Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) play a role in the multisystem disease that children on hemodialysis (HD) are facing, but little is known about their levels and protein binding (%PB). In this study, we evaluated the levels and %PB of six PBUTs cross-sectionally in a large pediatric HD cohort (n = 170) by comparing these with healthy and non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 (n = 24) children. In parallel β2-microglobulin (β2M) and uric acid (UA) were evaluated. We then explored the impact of age and residual kidney function on uremic toxin levels and %PB using analysis of covariance and Spearman correlation coefficients (rs). We found higher levels of β2M, p-cresyl glucuronide (pCG), hippuric acid (HA), indole acetic acid (IAA), and indoxyl sulfate (IxS) in the HD compared to the CKD4-5 group. In the HD group, a positive correlation between age and pCG, HA, IxS, and pCS levels was shown. Residual urine volume was negatively correlated with levels of β2M, pCG, HA, IAA, IxS, and CMPF (rs -0.2 to -0.5). In addition, we found overall lower %PB of PBUTs in HD versus the CKD4-5 group, and showed an age-dependent increase in %PB of IAA, IxS, and pCS. Furhtermore, residual kidney function was overall positively correlated with %PB of PBUTs. In conclusion, residual kidney function and age contribute to PBUT levels and %PB in the pediatric HD population.