Urinary piperacillin/tazobactam pharmacokinetics in vitro to determine the pharmacodynamic breakpoint for resistant Enterobacteriaceae.


The University of Notre Dame, School of Medicine Sydney, 160 Oxford St., Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia. Electronic address: [Email]


Urinary tract infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a growing burden worldwide. Recent studies of urinary pharmacokinetics described high piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) concentrations in urine, but it is unknown whether this results in treatment efficacy. This study investigated the pharmacodynamics of TZP in a static in vitro model for Enterobacteriaceae to determine the concentration-effect relationship and ultimately the required free (unbound) time above the minimum inhibitory concentration (fT>MIC) required for bacterial killing. The static simulation model investigated TZP fT>MIC between 0% and 100%. Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with piperacillin/tazobactam MICs of 4096/512, 1024/128 and 128/16 mg/L were investigated; two of the three organisms were carbapenemase-producers. Clinical efficacy was determined as a 3-log reduction over the dosing interval by comparing interval growth with controls. TZP was observed to exhibit time dependence for all organisms. The fT>MIC was determined to be 37.5%, 37.5% and 50% for MICs of 4096/512, 1024/128 and 128/16 mg/L, respectively. Linear regression identified the overall target to be 49.85 ± 16.9% fT>MIC. In conclusion, bactericidal activity against TZP-resistant Enterobacteriaceae occurred at 49.85 ± 16.9% fT>MIC. This suggests that highly resistant urinary organisms, including carbapenemase-producers, with MICs up to 4096/512 mg/L could be treated with TZP. Further investigations are required to elucidate urinary breakpoints and to explore the impact of different resistance mechanisms.


Enterobacteriaceae,Pharmacodynamics,Pharmacokinetics,Piperacillin,Static time–kill,Tazobactam,