Versatile Phospholipid Assemblies for Functional Synthetic Cells and Artificial Tissues.

Affiliation

Wang X(1), Du H(1)(2), Wang Z(1), Mu W(1), Han X(1).
Author information:
(1)State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, China.
(2)Marine Antifouling Engineering Technology Center of Shangdong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai, 264209, China.

Abstract

The bottom-up construction of a synthetic cell from nonliving building blocks capable of mimicking cellular properties and behaviors helps to understand the particular biophysical properties and working mechanisms of a cell. A synthetic cell built in this way possesses defined chemical composition and structure. Since phospholipids are native biomembrane components, their assemblies are widely used to mimic cellular structures. Here, recent developments in the formation of versatile phospholipid assemblies are described, together with the applications of these assemblies for functional membranes (protein reconstituted giant unilamellar vesicles), spherical and nonspherical protoorganelles, and functional synthetic cells, as well as the high-order hierarchical structures of artificial tissues. Their biomedical applications are also briefly summarized. Finally, the challenges and future directions in the field of synthetic cells and artificial tissues based on phospholipid assemblies are proposed.