Virucidal activity of proanthocyanidin against Mayaro virus.


José Carlos de Magalhães


Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, Federal University of São João del-Rei, Campus Alto Paraopeba, Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address: [Email]


Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a sublethal arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes with possible installation of an urban cycle in the Americas. Its infection causes disabling arthralgia, and still, there is no vaccine or treatment to it. We recently investigated nearly 600 compounds by molecular docking and identified epicatechin as a potent antiviral against MAYV. The root extract of Maytenus imbricata showed anti-MAYV activity and two isolated compounds from this plant were also evaluated in vitro. Proanthocyanidin (PAC), a dimer containing epicatechin, showed an effective concentration for 50% of the cells infected by MAYV (EC50) of 37.9 ± 2.4 μM and a selectivity index (SI) above 40. PAC showed significant virucidal activity, inhibiting 100% of the virus proliferation (7 log units), and caused moderate effect during adsorption and virus internalization stage. However, PAC was unable to block the infection when only the cells were pretreated. It was observed a reduction in virus yields when adding PAC at different moments after infection. The set of results indicates that PAC binds to viral and non-cellular elements and may inactivate the MAYV. The inactivation occurs before infection or when the virus reaches the extracellular environment from the 2nd cycle of infection that could block its progression cell-to-cell or to tissues not yet infected.


Alphavirus,Antiviral effect,Celastraceae,Epicatechin,Maytenus imbricata,Metilepigalocatechin,Proanthocyanidin,