Shan MR(1), Zhou SN(1), Fu CN(1), Song JW(1), Wang XQ(1), Bai WW(1)(2), Li P(3), Song P(3), Zhu ML(3), Ma ZM(4), Liu Z(5), Xu J(3), Dong B(6), Liu C(7), Guo T(1), Zhang C(1), Wang SX(1)(3)(7). Author information:
(1)The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, The
State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular
Medicine, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese National Health Commission and
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University,
(2)Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong
University, Jinan, China.
(3)College of Pharmacy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.
(4)Department of Endocrinology, Suzhou Science & Technology Town Hospital,
(5)Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, The First Affiliated
Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.
(6)Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University,
(7)Hubei Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular, Cerebrovascular, and Metabolic
Disorders, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning, China.
Macrophage activation participates in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation. As a coenzyme, vitamin B6 (VitB6) is mainly involved in the metabolism of amino acids, nucleic acids, glycogen and lipids. We have previously reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) produces anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. Whether VitB6 via AMPK activation prevents pulmonary inflammation remains unknown. The model of acute pneumonia was induced by injecting mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The inflammation was determined by measuring the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) using real time PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Exposure of cultured primary macrophages to VitB6 increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) Thr172 phosphorylation in a time/dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by compound C. VitB6 downregulated the inflammatory gene expressions including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in macrophages challenged with LPS. These effects of VitB6 were mirrored by AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR). However, VitB6 was unable to inhibit LPS-induced macrophage activation if AMPK was in deficient through siRNA-mediated approaches. Further, the anti-inflammatory effects produced by VitB6 or AICAR in LPS-treated macrophages were abolished in DOK3 gene knockout (DOK3-/- ) macrophages, but were enhanced in macrophages if DOK3 was overexpressed. In vivo studies indicated that administration of VitB6 remarkably inhibited LPS-induced both systemic inflammation and acute pneumonia in wild-type mice, but not in DOK3-/- mice. VitB6 prevents LPS-induced acute pulmonary inflammation in mice via the inhibition of macrophage activation.
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