Vitamin D microencapsulation and fortification: Trends and technologies.


Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, National Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management, Kundli, Sonepat, 131028, Haryana, India. Electronic address: [Email]


Today, as per the latest medical reports available, majority of the population throughout globe is facing vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency. Even in sub-tropical countries like India and many others Vit D deficiency is highly prevalent despite the exuberant available sunshine (a major source of Vit D) throughtout the year. The reason could be attributed to an array of factors including socioeconomical, cultural and religious. Further, other than the sunlight, there are very limited sources of Vit D to fulfil the recommended dietary allowance of Vit D (RDA: 400-800 IU per day). A large proportion of Vit D is lost during food processing and storage due to environmental stress conditions such as temperature, pH, salt, oxygen and light. Vita D, an important micronutrient, is essentially required for the prevention of disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. in addition to its traditional role in bone metabolism. Therefore, in order to meet the daily requirements of Vit D for human body, WHO has recognized fortification as the most efficient and safest method to address malnutrition. But there are innumerable chellenges involved during food fortification using Vit D as fortificants such as homogeneity into the food matrix, physico-chemical/photochemical degradation, loss during processing and storage, interactions with other components of food matrix resulting into change in taste, texture and appearance thus affecting acceptability, palatability and marketability. Fortification of Vit D into food products especially the ones which have an aqueous portion, is not simple for food technologist. Recent advances in nanotechnology offer various microencapsulation techniques such as liposome, solid-lipid particles, nanostructured lipid carriers, emulsion, spray drying etc. which have been used to design efficient nanomaterials with desired functionality and have great potential for fortification of fortificants like Vit D. The present review is an undate on Vit D, in light of its fortification level, RDA, factors affecting its bioavailability and various microencapsulation techniques adopted to develop Vit D-nanomaterials and their fate in food fortification.


Bioavailability,Encapsulation,Fortification,Functional food,Micro-/nano-encapsulation,Vitamin D,

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