Yogurt consumption is associated with higher nutrient intake, diet quality and favourable metabolic profile in children: a cross-sectional analysis using data from years 1-4 of the National diet and Nutrition Survey, UK.
OBJECTIVE : Yogurt consumption has been associated with higher nutrient intakes, better diet quality and improved metabolic profiles in adults. Few studies have investigated these associations in children. This study investigated the association of yogurt consumption with nutrient intakes, diet quality and metabolic profile in British children. METHODS : Data from 1687 children aged 4-10 and 11-18 years of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) years 1-4 were analysed. Yogurt consumption was determined using a 4-day diet diary. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, pulse pressure, plasma glucose, HbA1c, C-reactive protein, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-and low-density cholesterol from NDNS were used. RESULTS : The highest tertile of yogurt consumption (T3) was associated with higher nutrient intakes, particularly for calcium (children 4-10 years: P < 0.0001; children 11-18 years P = 0.001), iodine (both age groups P < 0.0001) and riboflavin (both age groups P < 0.0001), and HEI-2010 score (both age groups P < 0.0001) in children aged 4-10 years (mean ± SD: 98.4 ± 35.7 g yogurt/day) and 11-18 years (mean ± SD: 105.4 ± 37.5 g yogurt/day) compared with non-consumers (0 g yogurt/d). Yogurt consumption was associated with significantly lower pulse pressure in children aged 4-10 years and lower HbA1c concentration, being shorter and having a larger hip circumference in children aged 11-18 years, compared with non-yogurt consumers. CONCLUSIONS : This study suggests that British children who are yogurt consumers (> 60 g/day) have higher overall diet quality, nutrient intakes and adequacy, lower pulse pressure (children aged 4-10 years) and HbA1c concentrations (children aged 11-18 years), were shorter and had a smaller hip circumference (children aged 11-18 years).