Locally advanced oesophageal cancer treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach with the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for preoperative and definitive strategy. Preoperative chemoradiation improves the locoregional control and overall survival after surgery for locally advanced oesophageal cancer. Definitive chemoradiation can also be proposed for non-resectable tumours or medically inoperable patients. Besides, definitive chemoradiation is considered as an alternative option to surgery for locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas. Chemotherapy regimen associated to radiotherapy consists of a combination of platinum derived drugs (cisplatinum or oxaliplatin) and 5-fluorouracil or a weekly scheme combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel according to CROSS protocol in a neoadjuvant strategy. Radiation doses vary from 41.4Gy to 45Gy for a preoperative strategy or 50 to 50.4Gy for a definitive treatment. The high risk of lymphatic spread due to anatomical features could justify the use of an elective nodal irradiation when the estimated risk of microscopic involvement is higher than 15% to 20%. An appropriate delineation of the gross tumour volume requires an exhaustive and up-to-date evaluation of the disease. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy represents a promising approach to spare organs-at-risk. This critical review of the literature underlines the roles of radiotherapy for locally advanced oesophageal cancers and describes doses, volumes of treatment, technical aspects and dose constraints to organs-at-risk.