Service de médecine interne, hôpitaux universitaires Paris Nord-Val-de-Seine, hôpital Beaujon, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), 100, boulevard du Général-Leclerc, 92110 Clichy, France; Centre de référence des maladies lysosomales, hôpitaux universitaires Paris Nord-Val-de-Seine, hôpital Beaujon, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), 100, boulevard du Général-Leclerc, 92110 Clichy, France. Electronic address: [Email]
Gaucher disease is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease, caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, glucocerebrosidase that leads to the accumulation of its substrate (glucosylceramide) in lysosomal macrophages. In the general population, its incidence varies between 0.4 and 5.8/100,000 inhabitants. Type 1 Gaucher disease is the most frequent and is characterized by its extreme heterogeneity including asymptomatic or more severe presentations. The most frequent symptoms are anemia, thrombocytopenia, splenomegaly, and/or hepatomegaly, and a potentially severe bone involvement. Type 2 and type 3 Gaucher diseases are associated with neurological involvement that can be severe. Diagnosis is confirmed by demonstrating a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase activity in leucocytes, and by the identification of biallelic pathogenic variants in GBA1 gene. Type 1 Gaucher disease is associated with a higher risk of Parkinson disease, some solid cancers, and hematologic diseases in particularly multiple myeloma. Specific treatment, such as enzyme replacement therapy or substrate reduction therapy is indicated in symptomatic type 1 Gaucher disease. Only enzyme replacement therapy is indicated in type 3 Gaucher disease. Treatment improves quality of life and prognosis. The rarity of Gaucher disease and its wide variability in clinical presentations lead to diagnosis delays. There is a strong need for a better knowledge of its symptoms among physicians, to reduce irreversible complications.