Approximately 9000 different phenotypes are known in medicine. The definition phenotype includes both manifest diseases as well as features without any disease value and the pure genetic disposition to develop a disease (e.g. tumors or complex diseases); however, most phenotypes are rare monogenic hereditary diseases. Approximately 6400 of these phenotypes have so far been elucidated by molecular genetics and are caused by mutations in 4064 different genes. Of all genetic diseases, an estimated one third are associated with skin symptoms. Genodermatoses are the phenotypes predominantly related to the skin, of which approximately 600 are familiar to dermatologists. The syndromes with scaling and keratosis include cornification disorders where the symptoms are not limited to the skin. They are associated with skin symptoms such as ichthyosis, erythroderma and palmoplantar keratoderma but show additional symptoms from other organ groups. The typical combination of symptoms may be unique to a syndrome and therefore seminal for the diagnosis.