1,25(OH)2 D3 attenuates indoxyl sulfate-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition via inactivation of PI3K/Akt/β-catenin signaling in renal tubular epithelial cells.


Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address: [Email]


Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, has been shown to promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human proximal tubular cells and to accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite the well-known protective role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3] in EMT, the effect of 1,25(OH)2 D3 on IS-induced EMT in human proximal tubular epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether IS (0-1 mM) dose-dependently inhibited the protein expression of E-cadherin and increased the protein expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, N-cadherin, and fibronectin.


1,25(OH)(2) D(3),EMT,HK-2 cells,Indoxyl sulfate,β-catenin,

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