10-Year Locoregional Control with Postoperative External Beam Radiotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced High-Risk Non-Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma De Novo or at Relapse, a Propensity Score Analysis.
(1) Background: To assess the role of postoperative external beam radiotherapy (pEBRT) on locoregional failure (LRF) for patients with locally advanced high-risk non-anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (naTC) at primary event or relapse. (2) Methods: Between 1995 and 2015, postoperative naTC patients with a theoretical indication for EBRT were included based on criteria that were common to American-British-French current guidelines, i.e., pT3-4, pN+, gross or microscopic residual disease. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) after multiple imputation was used to reduce selection biases. (3) Results: Of 254 naTC patients, 216 patients underwent pEBRT (106 de novo, 110 at relapse, median dose 60 Gy) and 38 underwent surgery only. pEBRT patients had more gross residual disease, a major prognostic factor (p = 0.027) but less perineural invasion (p = 0.008) or lymphovascular emboli (p = 0.009). pEBRT patients more frequently underwent radioiodine therapy (p = 0.026). The 10-year cumulative incidence of LRF was 56% (95% CI, 32-74%) in operated patients, and 23% (95% CI, 17-30%) in pEBRT patients. After IPTW method, pEBRT reduced the risk of LRF (hazard ratio 0.30; 95% CI [0.18-0.49], p < 0.001), but had no impact on OS. In the pEBRT group, non-Intensity Modulated RadioTherapy (IMRT) plans and interruption of the radiotherapy were associated with poorer survival, while extended versus limited field strategy and dose were not. (4) Conclusions: In naTC patients who have pT3-4, pN+ disease or R1-2 resection, pEBRT improved LRF. Limited-field IMRT is preferred.