A Global Review on Short Peptides: Frontiers and Perspectives.


Apostolopoulos V(1), Bojarska J(2), Chai TT(3), Elnagdy S(4), Kaczmarek K(5), Matsoukas J(1)(6)(7), New R(8)(9), Parang K(10), Lopez OP(11), Parhiz H(12), Perera CO(13), Pickholz M(14)(15), Remko M(16), Saviano M(17), Skwarczynski M(18), Tang Y(19), Wolf WM(2), Yoshiya T(20), Zabrocki J(5), Zielenkiewicz P(21)(22), AlKhazindar M(4), Barriga V(1), Kelaidonis K(6), Sarasia EM(9), Toth I(18)(23)(24).
Author information:
(1)Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 3030, Australia.
(2)Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Żeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz, Poland.
(3)Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar 31900, Malaysia.
(4)Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gamaa St., Giza 12613, Egypt.
(5)Institute of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Żeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz, Poland.
(6)NewDrug, Patras Science Park, 26500 Patras, Greece.
(7)Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada.
(UK) Ltd., c/o London Bioscience Innovation Centre, London NW1 0NH, UK.
(9)Faculty of Science & Technology, Middlesex University, The Burroughs, London NW4 4BT, UK.
(10)Center for Targeted Drug Delivery, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University School of Pharmacy, Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus, Irvine, CA 92618, USA.
(11)Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Biotecnología y Bioquímica, Irapuato 36824, Guanajuato, Mexico.
(12)Infectious Disease Division, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6073, USA.
(13)School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.
(14)Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina.
(15)Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires
(IFIBA, UBA-CONICET), Argentina, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina.
(16)Remedika, Luzna 9, 85104 Bratislava, Slovakia.
(17)Institute of Crystallography
(CNR), Via Amendola 122/o, 70126 Bari, Italy.
(18)School of Chemistry & Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.
(19)Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry & Chemical Biology
(MOE), School of Pharma Ceutical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
(20)Peptide Institute, Inc., Osaka 567-0085, Japan.
(21)Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.
(22)Department of Systems Biology, Institute of Experimental Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland.
(23)Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.
(24)School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia.


Peptides are fragments of proteins that carry out biological functions. They act as signaling entities via all domains of life and interfere with protein-protein interactions, which are indispensable in bio-processes. Short peptides include fundamental molecular information for a prelude to the symphony of life. They have aroused considerable interest due to their unique features and great promise in innovative bio-therapies. This work focusing on the current state-of-the-art short peptide-based therapeutical developments is the first global review written by researchers from all continents, as a celebration of 100 years of peptide therapeutics since the commencement of insulin therapy in the 1920s. Peptide "drugs" initially played only the role of hormone analogs to balance disorders. Nowadays, they achieve numerous biomedical tasks, can cross membranes, or reach intracellular targets. The role of peptides in bio-processes can hardly be mimicked by other chemical substances. The article is divided into independent sections, which are related to either the progress in short peptide-based theranostics or the problems posing challenge to bio-medicine. In particular, the SWOT analysis of short peptides, their relevance in therapies of diverse diseases, improvements in (bio)synthesis platforms, advanced nano-supramolecular technologies, aptamers, altered peptide ligands and in silico methodologies to overcome peptide limitations, modern smart bio-functional materials, vaccines, and drug/gene-targeted delivery systems are discussed.