Tracking operating trains and identifying illegal intruders are two important and critical issues in subway safety management. One challenge is to find a reliable methodology that would enable these two needs to be addressed with high sensitivity and spatial resolution over a long-distance range. This paper proposes a novel monitoring approach based on distributed vibration, which is suitable for both train tracking and incursion detection. For an actual subway system, ultra-weak fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing technology was applied to collect the distributed vibration responses from moving trains and intruders. The monitoring data from the subway operation stage were directly utilized to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed method for tracking trains. Moreover, a field simulation experiment was performed to validate the possibility of detecting human intrusion. The results showed that the diagonal signal pattern in the distributed vibration response can be used to reveal the location and speed of the moving loads (e.g., train and intruders). Other train parameters, such as length and the number of compartments, can also be obtained from the vibration responses through cross-correlation and envelope processing. Experimental results in the time and frequency domains within the selected intrusion range indicated that the proposed method can distinguish designed intrusion cases in terms of strength and mode.