A Scientific Perspective of Personalised Gene-Based Dietary Recommendations for Weight Management.


Institute for Nutritional Medicine, University Hospital Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Georg-Brauchle-Ring 62, 80992 Munich, Germany. [Email]


Various studies showed that a "one size fits all" dietary recommendation for weight management is questionable. For this reason, the focus increasingly falls on personalised nutrition. Although there is no precise and uniform definition of personalised nutrition, the inclusion of genetic variants for personalised dietary recommendations is more and more favoured, whereas scientific evidence for gene-based dietary recommendations is rather limited. The purpose of this article is to provide a science-based viewpoint on gene-based personalised nutrition and weight management. Most of the studies showed no clinical evidence for gene-based personalised nutrition. The Food4Me study, e.g., investigated four different groups of personalised dietary recommendations based on dietary guidelines, and physiological, clinical, or genetic parameters, and resulted in no difference in weight loss between the levels of personalisation. Furthermore, genetic direct-to-consumer (DTC) tests are widely spread by companies. Scientific organisations clearly point out that, to date, genetic DTC tests are without scientific evidence. To date, gene-based personalised nutrition is not yet applicable for the treatment of obesity. Nevertheless, personalised dietary recommendations on the genetic landscape of a person are an innovative and promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity. In the future, human intervention studies are necessary to prove the clinical evidence of gene-based dietary recommendations.


dietary recommendation,direct-to-consumer test,gene-based,gene–diet interaction,genotype,nutrigenetics,obesity,personalised nutrition,weight loss,

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