A highly selective and sensitive red-emitting fluorescent probe for visualization of endogenous peroxynitrite in living cells and zebrafish.


School of Water Conservancy and Environment, University of Jinan, Shandong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center for Ecological Carbon Sink and Capture Utilization, Jinan 250022, China. [Email]


Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) has been proven to participate in various physiological and pathological processes, and may also be a contributing factor in many diseases. In view of this, there is a need to develop detection tools for unambiguously tracking a small amount of endogenous ONOO- to reveal its exact mechanisms. In this paper, a colorimetric and red-emitting fluorescent probe Red-PN, based on a rhodamine-type fluorophore and hydrazide reactive site is described. The probe Red-PN possesses the advantages of rapid response (within 5 s), visual color change (from colorless to pink), preeminent sensitivity (detection limit = 4.3 nM) and selectivity. Because of these outstanding performances, it was possible to accurately detect endogenous ONOO-. It was encouraging that the probe Red-PN could be used effectively for tracking the relatively low levels of endogenous and exogenous ONOO- in living cells and zebrafish. Thus, it is envisioned that the probe Red-PN would have promising prospects in applications for imaging ONOO- in a variety of biological settings.

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