IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a tonsil-related disease. We previously showed that oligodeoxynucleotides with CpG (CpG-ODN) and B-cell activation factor (BAFF) are involved in hyperproduction of IgA from tonsillar mononuclear cells of patients with IgAN (IgAN-TMCs). In this study, we focused on a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), homologous to BAFF. IgAN-TMCs produced more APRIL than non IgAN-TMCs in the presence of both CpG-ODN and control-ODN. TLR9 expression was higher in B-cells of IgAN-TMCs, and treatment with CpG-ODN enhanced transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) expression. IgA production from IgAN-TMCs was inhibited by APRIL neutralization antibody or TACI blocking antibody, and enhanced by co-treatment of APRIL and CpG-ODN. Serum APRIL levels were higher in patients with IgAN, and decreased after tonsillectomy. These findings suggest that APRIL is involved in the hyperproduction of IgA from IgAN-TMCs, and that CpG-ODN enhanced APRIL-induced IgA production by increasing TACI expression on B-cells of IgAN-TMCs.