A review of the emerging treatment technologies for PFAS contaminated soils.


School of Engineering, Faculty of Business, Justice and Behavioural Sciences, Charles Sturt University, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address: [Email]


Contamination of soils with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has become a challenging issue due to the adverse effects of these substances on both the environment and public health. PFAS have strong chemical structures and their bonding with soil makes them challenging to eliminate from soil environments. Traditional methods of soil remediation have not been successful in their reduction or removal from the environment. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of existing and emerging technologies for remediating PFAS contaminated soils with guidance on which approach to use in different contexts. The functions of all remediation technologies, their suitability, limitations, and the scale applied from laboratory to the field are presented as a baseline for understanding the research need for treatment in soil environments. To date, the immobilization method has been a significant part of the remediation solution for PFAS contaminated soils, although its long-term efficiency still needs further investigation. Soil washing and thermal treatment techniques have been tested at the field scale, but they are expensive and energy-intensive due to the use of a large volume of washing solvent and the high melting point of PFAS, respectively; both methods need a large initial investment for their installation. Other remediation technologies, such as chemical oxidation, ball milling, and electron beams, have been progressed in the laboratory. However, additional research is needed to make them feasible, cost-effective and applicable in the field.


Destruction strategies,PFAS,Separation strategies,Soil remediation,Stabilization methods,

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