Unlike inorganic crystals, metal-organic frameworks do not have a well-developed nanostructure library, and establishing their appropriately diverse and complex architectures remains a major challenge. Here, we demonstrate a general route to control metal-organic framework structure by a solvent-assisted ligand exchange approach. Thirteen different types of metal-organic framework structures have been prepared successfully. To demonstrate a proof of concept application, we used the obtained metal-organic framework materials as precursors for synthesizing nanoporous carbons and investigated their electrochemical Na+ storage properties. Due to the unique architecture, the one-dimensional nanoporous carbon derived from double-shelled ZnCo bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate framework nanotubes exhibits high specific capacity as well as superior rate capability and cycling stability. Our study offers an avenue for the controllable preparation of well-designed meta-organic framework structures and their derivatives, which would further broaden the application opportunities of metal-organic framework materials.