Abundance of Plant-Associated Gammaproteobacteria Correlates with Immunostimulatory Activity of Angelica sinensis.


Department of Chemistry, Hunter College of CUNY, New York, NY 10065, USA. [Email]


Background:Angelica sinensis is a medicinal plant known for a variety of biological effects, including its ability to stimulate innate immune cells in humans. Recent studies indicate that the immunostimulatory activity of A. sinensis arises from microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) of plant-associated bacteria. However, it is unknown which bacterial taxa in A. sinensis are responsible for the production of immunostimulatory MAMPs. Methods: Samples of A. sinensis were subjected to a cell-based assay to detect monocyte-stimulation and 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing, which revealed their immunostimulatory activity and microbial communities. The resulting data were analyzed by Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe), an online biostatistical tool for metagenomic biomarker discovery, to identify the bacterial taxonomical features correlated with the immunostimulatory activity. Results: A series of bacterial taxa under Gammaproteobacteria correlated positively with the immunostimulatory activity, whereas several Gram-positive taxa and Betaproteobacteria correlated negatively with the activity. Conclusions: The identified bacterial taxa set a new stage to characterize immunostimulatory MAMPs in plants.


Angelica sinensis,Dong quai,Juzen-taiho-to,Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang,lipopolysaccharide (LPS),microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP),

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