BACKGROUND : Pedicle screws (PSs) are routinely used for stabilization to enhance fusion in a variety of spinal diseases. Although the accuracy of different PS placement methods has been previously reported, most of these studies have been limited to 1 or 2 techniques. The purpose was to determine the current accuracy of PS placement among 4 modalities of PS insertion (freehand [FH], fluoroscopy-assisted [FA], computed tomography navigation-guided [CTNav], and robot-assisted [RA]) and analyze variables associated with screw misplacement. METHODS : A systematic review was performed of peer-reviewed articles reporting PS accuracy of 1 technique from January 1990 to June 2018. Accuracy of PS placement, PS insertion technique, and pedicle breach (PB) data were collected. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the overall pooled (OP) rates of PS accuracy as a primary outcome, stratified by screw insertion techniques. Potential determinants were analyzed via meta-regression analyses. RESULTS : Seventy-eight studies with 7858 patients, 51,161 PSs, and 3614 cortical PBs were included. CTNav showed the highest PS placement accuracy compared with other techniques: OP accuracy rates were 95.5%, 93.1%, 91.5%, and 90.5%, via CTNav, FH, FA, and RA techniques, respectively. RA and CTNav were associated with the highest PS accuracy in the thoracic spine, compared with FH. CONCLUSIONS : The OP data show that CTNav has the highest PS accuracy rates. Thoracic PSs were associated with lower accuracy rates; however, RA showed fewer breaches in the thoracic spine compared with FH and FA. Given the heterogeneity among studies, further standardized and comparative investigations are required to confirm our findings.