Activation of Melanocortin 1 Receptor Attenuates Early Brain Injury in a Rat Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage viathe Suppression of Neuroinflammation through AMPK/TBK1/NF-κB Pathway in Rats.


Department of Neurosurgery, The second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Rd, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang, China. [Email]


Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The hypothesis of this study was that activation of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) with BMS-470539 attenuates EBI by suppression of neuroinflammation after SAH. We utilized BMS-470539, MSG-606, and MRT-68601 to verify the neuroprotective effects of MC1R. We evaluated brain water content, short-term and long-term neurobehavior after SAH. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were utilized to assess the changes of protein levels. The results of western blotting suggested that the expressions of MC1R, phosphorylated-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), and phosphorylated-TANK binding kinase 1 (p-TBK1) were increased and reached their peak points at 24 h following SAH. Moreover, BMS-470539 treatment notably attenuated neurological deficits caused by SAH, and also notably improved long-term spatial learning and memory abilities after SAH. The underlying mechanisms of the neuroprotection of BMS-470539 involved the suppression of microglia activation, promotion of CD206+ microglia transformation and reduction of neutrophil infiltration by increasing the levels of p-AMPK and p-TBK1 while decreasing the levels of NF-κB, IL-1β, and TNFα. The neuroprotective effects of BMS-470539 were significantly abolished by MSG-606 and MRT-68601. The activation of MC1R with BMS-470539 notably attenuates EBI after SAH by suppression of microglial activation and neutrophil infiltration via the AMPK/TBK1/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Early brain injury,Melanocortin 1 Receptor,Neuroinflammation,Subarachnoid hemorrhage,TBK1,

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