BACKGROUND : Veterinary studies describing acute kidney injury (AKI) management using renal replacement therapy (RRT) are limited and have primarily focused on intermittent haemodialysis in North American populations. European data are lacking, although differences in populations, pathogen and toxin exposure and RRT modalities may exist between Europe and North America. The present study reviewed RRT-managed cases from the intensive care unit (ICU) of VetAgro Sup, Lyon, France, for the period 2012-2015. The aims were to describe a 4-h RRT protocol of intermittent low efficiency haemodiafiltration, population characteristics and outcomes in canine AKI cases requiring RRT and to identify prognostic variables. We defined DeltaCreat/h as the difference between the serum creatinine level after RRT treatment N and that before treatment N + 1 divided by the time between treatments (in hours). RESULTS : Thirty-nine dogs were included, and 67% were males. The median (range) age, weight, hospitalization length and number of RRT treatments were 4.4 (0.25-15) years, 26.6 (6.7-69) kg, 8 (1-23) days and 3 (1-8) treatments, respectively. The main AKI causes were leptospirosis (74.4%) and nephrotoxins (15.4%). Age (4.0 vs 5.4 years; P = 0.04), admission urine output (0.5 mL/kg/h vs 0 mL/kg/h; P = 0.02) and hospitalization length (10 vs 4 days; P < 0.001) differed between survivors and non-survivors. Hospitalization length [odds ratio (OR) = 0.4], number of treatments (OR = 5.1), serum potassium level on day 2 (OR = 1.9), DeltaCreat/h between the first and second treatments (OR = 1.2), and UOP during hospitalization (OR = 0.2) were correlated with outcome. The main causes of death were euthanasia (44%) and haemorrhagic diatheses (33%). The overall survival rate was 54%, with 55% of survivors discharged with a median creatinine < 240 µmol/L. CONCLUSIONS : This is the first description in the veterinary literature of a 4-h protocol of intermittent low efficiency haemodiafiltration to provide RRT in a veterinary critical care unit. While this protocol appears promising, the clinical application of this protocol requires further investigation. Among parameters associated with survival, UOP and DeltaCreat/h between the first and second RRT treatments may be prognostic indicators. The applicability of these parameters to other populations is unknown, and further international, multicentre prospective studies are warranted to confirm these preliminary observations.