Obesity-associated insulin resistance is a forerunner of type 2 diabetes. Macrophages reside within adipose tissue (ATMs) have been reported to regulate insulin sensitivity through secreting miRNAs containing exosomes. Here, we show that miR-29a is increased in obese ATMs derived exosomes (ATMs-Exos) and can be transferred into adipocytes, myocytes and hepatocytes causing insulin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Administration of obese ATMs-Exos impairs insulin sensitivity of lean mice. While knockdown miR-29a level in obese ATM-Exos blunts this effect. PPAR-δ is identified to function as downstream target of miR-29a in regulating insulin resistance. PPAR-δ agonist GW501516 partially rescued the insulin resistance induced by miR-29a. Taken together, these findings suggest that ATMs derived exosomal miR-29a could regulate obesity-associated insulin resistance, which may serve as a potential therapeutic target for obesity-associated type 2 diabetes.