Adjuvanted influenza vaccine dynamics.


Esteban A Hernandez-Vargas


Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. [Email]


Adjuvanted influenza vaccines constitute a key element towards inducing neutralizing antibody responses in populations with reduced responsiveness, such as infants and elderly subjects, as well as in devising antigen-sparing strategies. In particular, squalene-containing adjuvants have been observed to induce enhanced antibody responses, as well as having an influence on cross-reactive immunity. To explore the effects of adjuvanted vaccine formulations on antibody response and their relation to protein-specific immunity, we propose different mathematical models of antibody production dynamics in response to influenza vaccination. Data from ferrets immunized with commercial H1N1pdm09 vaccine antigen alone or formulated with different adjuvants was instrumental to adjust model parameters. While the affinity maturation process complexity is abridged, the proposed model is able to recapitulate the essential features of the observed dynamics. Our numerical results suggest that there exists a qualitative shift in protein-specific antibody response, with enhanced production of antibodies targeting the NA protein in adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted formulations, in conjunction with a protein-independent boost that is over one order of magnitude larger for squalene-containing adjuvants. Furthermore, simulations predict that vaccines formulated with squalene-containing adjuvants are able to induce sustained antibody titers in a robust way, with little impact of the time interval between immunizations.