Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA; Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address: [Email]
Cutaneous injuries, especially chronic wounds, burns, and skin wound infection, require painstakingly long-term treatment with an immense financial burden to healthcare systems worldwide. However, clinical management of chronic wounds remains unsatisfactory in many cases. Various strategies including growth factor and gene delivery as well as cell therapy have been used to enhance the healing of non-healing wounds. Drug delivery systems across the nano, micro, and macroscales can extend half-life, improve bioavailability, optimize pharmacokinetics, and decrease dosing frequency of drugs and genes. Replacement of the damaged skin tissue with substitutes comprising cell-laden scaffold can also restore the barrier and regulatory functions of skin at the wound site. This review covers comprehensively the advanced treatment strategies to improve the quality of wound healing.