In recent years, along with the rapid development of relevant biological fields, there has been a tremendous motivation to combine molecular imprinting technology (MIT) with biosensing. In this situation, bioprobes and biosensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have emerged as a reliable candidate for a comprehensive range of applications, from biomolecule detection to drug tracking. Unlike their precursors such as classic immunosensors based on antibody binding and natural receptor elements, MIPs create complementary cavities with stronger binding affinity, while their intrinsic artificial polymers facilitate their use in harsh environments. The major objective of this work is to review recent MIP bioprobes and biosensors, especially those used for biomolecules and drugs. In this review, MIP bioprobes and biosensors are categorized by sensing method, including optical sensing, electrochemical sensing, gravimetric sensing and magnetic sensing, respectively. The working mechanism(s) of each sensing method are thoroughly discussed. Moreover, this work aims to present the cutting-edge structures and modifiers offering higher properties and performances, and clearly point out recent efforts dedicated to introduce multi-sensing and multi-functional MIP bioprobes and biosensors applicable to interdisciplinary fields.