High mountain cold-trapping effects can play important roles in the global long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have recently been included into the Stockholm Convention as a new class of POPs. However, the long-range transport behavior and environmental fate of SCCPs still remain largely unknown in high-altitude mountain areas. In this study, a total of 51 fish samples were collected from five high-altitude mountain lakes and Lasha river across the Tibetan Plateau. SCCPs were positively detected in all fish samples, and the concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 107 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) with an average of 26.6 ng g-1 dw. Compared to aquatic organisms from the Artic and Antarctica, the SCCP levels found in alpine fish from the Tibetan Plateau were lower. A significant increasing trend in accumulation levels of SCCPs in alpine fish with the increasing altitude was found on the Tibetan Plateau (r = 0.98, p < 0.001). Shorter chain congener group C10 showed a significant increase in percentage contribution to total SCCPs with increasing altitude, but a contrary tendency was found for longer chain congener group C13. The widespread occurrence of SCCPs in Tibetan fish was mainly sourced from the long-range atmospheric transport, and the altitude-dependent distribution of SCCPs was due to the mountain cold-trapping effects and potential susceptibility to bioaccumulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the altitude-dependent accumulation of SCCPs in biota in the polar environment.