The amino acids and other components of diet provide nourishment for piglet intestinal development and maturation. However, early-weaned piglets struggle with tremendous stress, impairing normal intestinal health and leading to intestinal dysfunction and even death. The high prevalence worldwide of post-weaning diarrhoea syndrome (PWDS) in piglets has led to much interest in understanding the important role of nutrients in the establishment and maintenance of a functional intestinal tract. In particular, the impacts of amino acids on these functions must be considered. Amino acid levels greatly influence intestinal development in weaning piglets. The lack of amino acids can cause marked structural and functional changes in the intestine. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the functions of amino acids is necessary to optimize amino acid requirements of the developing intestinal tract to maximize piglet health and growth performance. This review summarizes the role of specific amino acids (arginine, glutamate, threonine, sulphur-containing amino acids (SCAAs), and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)) that have been proven to be beneficial for the intestinal health of weaned piglets.