An Investigation on Glucuronidation Metabolite Identification, Isozyme Contribution, and Species Differences of GL-V9 In Vitro and In Vivo.


Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratory, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China. [Email]


GL-V9 is a prominent derivative of wogonin with a wide therapeutic spectrum and potent anti-tumor activity. The metabolism characteristics of GL-V9 remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the metabolic pathway of GL-V9 and investigate the generation of its glucuronidation metabolites in vitro and in vivo. HPLC-UV-TripleTOF was used to identify metabolites. The main metabolite that we found was chemically synthesized and the synthetic metabolite was utilized as standard substance for the subsequent metabolism studies of GL-V9, including enzyme kinetics in liver microsomes of five different species and reaction phenotyping metabolism using 12 recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms. Results indicated that the glucuronidation reaction occurred at C5-OH group, and 5-O-glucuronide GL-V9 is the only glucuronide metabolite and major phase II metabolite of GL-V9. Among 12 recombinant human UGTs, rUGT1A9 showed the strongest catalytic capacity for the glucuronidation reaction of GL-V9. rUGT1A7 and rUGT1A8 were also involved in the glucuronidation metabolism. Km of rUGT1A7-1A9 was 3.25 ± 0.29, 13.92 ± 1.05, and 4.72 ± 0.28 μM, respectively. In conclusion, 5-O-glucuronide GL-V9 is the dominant phase II metabolite of GL-V9 in vivo and in vitro, whose formation rate and efficiency are closely related to isoform-specific metabolism profiles and the distribution of UGTs in different tissues of different species.


GL-V9,enzyme kinetics,glucuronidation,human recombinant UGTs,

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