Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address: [Email]
Cadmium contamination in soil, water and food has become a global problem since last century's industrial and agricultural revolution. It is a highly toxic metal with serious consequences on human and animal health. Different natural and anthropogenic sources are responsible for Cd release in the soil which ultimately leads to the food chain. Cd persists in soil for long durations due to its minimal microbial or chemical loss. There are various physical, chemical or biological techniques which are helpful to minimize Cd risk in food chain. Among them, in-situ immobilization with organic, inorganic or clay amendments is a cost-effective and an environment friendly strategy to remediate Cd polluted sites. Lime, biochar, organic wastes, phosphorus fertilizers, sepiolite, zeolite, hydroxyapatite and bentonite are commonly used amendments for amelioration of Cd contaminated soils. These amendments reduce Cd uptake and enhance immobilization by adsorption, complexation, and precipitation processes. This review is aimed to provide a comprehensive note on Cd toxicity in humans and environment, its immobilization by different agents through variety of processes, and comparison of technologies for Cd removal from contaminated sites.