For the purpose of investigating the heat resistance mechanism of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, label-free quantification was used to reveal some cellular changes in A. acidoterrestris during heat stress. Totally, 545 differential expression proteins were respectively identified at heat stress of 65 °C for 5 min, of which 258 proteins were up-regulated and 287 proteins were down-regulated. These significantly changed proteins were mapped to 100 pathways and some of them were mostly related to protection or repair of macromolecules such as proteins and DNA, cell wall formation, which indicated that these proteins might play crucial roles in response to heat stress. The KEGG pathway analysis combined with protein functional analysis and further validation at mRNA level suggested that A. acidoterrestris sensed the temperature rise in environment through alterations in the secondary structure of DNA and RNA molecules. The biosynthesis of antibiotics pathway and the ribosomes might be involved in signal transduction in heat stress and further trigger a large number of proteins playing a critical role in the regulation of heat stress in A. acidoterrestris. The study firstly demonstrated the global physiological response to heat stress and the results provided a better understanding of thermal adaption mechanism of A. acidoterrestris.